Ganja is the second largest city of Azerbaijan, located on the northern slopes of Less Caucasus range about 375 km west from Baku. Being a monument of the ancient culture and the industrial center of western Azerbaijan Ganca has population about 323,0 thousand people.
Ganja is the second largest city of Azerbaijan, located on the banks of Ganja river on the northern slopes of Less Caucasus range about 375 km west from Baku. Being a monument of the ancient culture and the industrial center of western Azerbaijan Ganca has population about 323,0 thousand people. The city is situated in a middle of the way between Baku, the capital city of Azerbaijan, and Tbilisi, the capital city of Georgia. Ganja has always played central role to the political-economic and cultural life of the country since the earliest of times. The city is considered the country’s literary and cultural center and was the birthplace of great Azerbaijani poets Nizami Ganjavi, poetess Mahsati Khanim Ganjavi, Mirza Shafi Vazeh. With ample streets and avenues and well-designed parks, Ganja is one of the prettiest Azeri towns. The city retains a strong German influence in its architecture.
Average temperature in January is 1,1C and in July is 25,4C. Ganja, located at the north-eastern foot of the Greater Caucasus Mountains, in one of the most beautiful corners of Azerbaijan. The main river of the district is Ganjacay which devides the city by two parts. The city is located at the foot of the northern slopes of the Less Caucasus mountain range Murovdag on both banks of the river Gyandzhyachay. Azerbaijan’s monotonous central plains consist of drearily flat steppe, semi-desert and salt marsh. The scenery gets much more interesting in the beautiful Lesser Caucasus mountains
City with a history that goes back to 494 BC. During excavations conducted in Ganja archeologists discovered ancient habitations of II century B.C., many archeological objects belonging to Bronze Age around Ganja. city played an important role in the social economic, political and cultural life of Azerbaijan.The city was located at the crossroads of caravan routes local silk in great demand in the markets of neighboring countries and the Middle East. goods taken to Black Sea coasts from Eastern countries were transported through caravan ways crossing this city.
In 1139 year vicinities of Ganja happened a powerful earthquake. “Cap” of Mount Kapaz (where as its height more than 4000 m, is now little more than 3066 m. above sea level) collapsed and blocked the Agsu river. Several mountain lakes were formed :. Goygol, Maral-Gol, Garagol ~ illi gol Zyalli gol. History of Ganja – is a series of devastating wars and the subsequent period of prosperity.
One of peaks of Kepez Mountain fell and created Goygol Lake by blocking the way of Agsu River. In XVII century city was rebuilt in 6km east from previous place.
In 1918 – on the eve of collapse of Russian Empire Ganja became the temporary capital of independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic for a few months, at which point it was renamed Ganja again
After the awful earthquake Ganja regenerated soon and in the 11th and 13th centuries Ganja became again the prosper and richest city known everywhere in the East. city was the centre of the caucasian Albanian Christianity till the 11th century, when it fell to the Seljuk Turks. In the 15th century Ganca was included in the state of Garagoyunlu. In 16th century the town was taken by the Sefavids. the city has 25 centuries of history behind it and was formerly a much more important cultural centre than Baku. Most proudly it was home to the national bard Nizami Gəncəvi (1141–1209). However it was levelled by earthquakes and razed by the Mongols in 1231 the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was declared in 1918 and Gəncə served for a few months as the short-lived republic’s first capital, until Baku was recaptured from the Bolsheviks. Medieval Ganja was known as an important centre of craft and trade throughout the Near and Middle East. For some time in 1918 Ganca was the provisional capital of a briefly independent Azerbaijan. Changes in history were also reflected on the city’s name.
There are many historical monuments here. There are Juma Mosque and its madrasah, Sheikh Ibrahim Mausoleum, Gizil Hajily, Ozan, Bala Bagbanly, Sherefkhanly and Shahseven Mosques, Great Bridge and Small Bridge built on the Ganjachay (XII century), caravanserai and complex of buildings, Imamzade with blue cupola of glazed brick, very beautiful ancient City bathhouses (bathhouses are available now) here. Guests are recommended to visit Nizami Ganjavi Mausoleum located in the entry of city. The city’s history museum and the academy museum tell about the path of historical development of the Ganja. This area has a rich natural, cultural and historical heritage. Ganja presents a lot of ancient architectural monuments that have reached us from the depth of the history. Many historical monuments have been perished irrevocably. But those which were at least partially saved are of great historical and scientific value. City of the ancient culture Gandja has preserved the beautiful face of the city with many monuments of architecture. Attractions ensemble Sheikh Bahaaddina ~. 1. Xataikii ~ The main thing historic ensemble of Ganja (Juma -mechet (Shah Abbas mosque), madrassas and Chёkyak-hammam), designed by a well-known in the East scholar and architect Sheikh Bahaaddina, during the reign of Shah Abbas. Previously, in the place where now is the ensemble was the market square.
There are many ancient historical monuments: mosque of Albanians, Ganja Gates (X-XI c.), Palace “Dar-us-Soltan” (XII c.), towers, medrese, bath-house, Caravansaray, Imam-zade Complex (XVI c.), Djuma Mosque (1606). To the south of Ganja between the emerald alpine forests is hidden the azure lake Goy-Gol (Blue Lake). On slope of mountains surrounding the lake there are unique creations of nature: “Stone circus”, “Chingil”, mystical caves and grottos. The area is famous for the Kapaz mountain and the 7 lakes near it, particularly the Geygel – the blue lake. The territory is perfect for trekking or for the simple joys of a family picnic.
There are porcelain, silk and footwear industries as well as other industries processing food, grapes and cotton from the surrounding farmlands. There are a lot of forests, vineyards, lakes, rivers and mountains.
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